Showing a Visualization of the Orbits of the Inner Planets

Actual orbits of our solar system, sped up to show the difference in orbits in terms of time.

When it comes to properly visualizing our solar system astrophysicist realize there are many interactions among the different planets that affect the orbit of each body. When simulating just one body and its path, there are many interactions that go along with figuring out its trajectory.

In order to display the actual orbits of the planets, we must first bring this matter to simple mechanics. Newton discovered three distinct laws that govern our universe, with the second law being the one of importance for our simulation. …

Using machine learning to detect planets orbiting stars in our local galaxy using the Kepler dataset.

Kepler-186f is the first exoplanet found to orbit its local star in the habitable zone.


On April 17, 2014 the Kepler satellite, found one of the most crucial finds in modern day astronomy. It detected a planet that orbited its local host star in the habitable zone, also called the Goldilock zone. A find that lead to speculation about how many planets out there are like our own. …

Whether you are an amateur astronomer taking images of the night sky for pure amusement, or an astrophysicist sieving over large amounts of data to research star formation from various nebulas or examining young stellar objects (YSO’s), you will use one technique that is key to creating an image that is usable. This technique is called stacking.

  1. Background
  2. Using it in python
  3. Future works


You maybe asking, what exactly is stacking. Stacking is what it sounds like. You take the amount of photos you have taken of your object, in this case it will be M31 or otherwise called…

Before programming was much of a thing, calculations by hand was how all scientists determined the many solutions to life. Whether it was determining Newton’s laws of gravity, how relativistic laws shorten or lengthen a person’s life depending where they are in respect to an observer, or figuring out the mechanics of a rocket to bypass Earth’s gravitational pull. In science we call this the brute force method. Taking hours upon hours to decide what are the right variables to use, what parameters the situation may have, that will ultimately further humanities’ understanding of this complex world. Our brute force…

Rafael Ferreira

Undergraduate in Physics concentration in Astrophysics. Thesis in classification of Eight Young Stellar Objects in the SMC. Data Science Bootcamp Flatiron

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store